HAI Testing and Analysis

Background

healthcare infections

Bacteria and fungi are ubiquitous in all environmental settings, including hospitals, critical care areas, surgical suites, ICUs and pharmacies. Nursing homes and acute care facilities that care for those with compromised immune systems are also of concern. Although environmental microbial sampling of the areas mentioned above is not recommended on a routine basis, there are a number of circumstances in which sampling may be judged necessary: (i) when Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s) are due to common airborne bacteria and fungi; (ii) during outdoor or indoor construction in close proximity to susceptible patients; (iii) commissioning of new space with specialized controlled environments, and (iv) when procedures necessary for the cleanest air quality are being established and maintained.

Healthcare Associated Infections, (HAI’s) are infections caused by bacteria or fungi contracted during a stay in a hospital, nursing home or rehabilitation facility. In some cases the etiologic agent causing the infection, is a bacterium that may be shed off skin cells or the respiratory tract of employees or visitors, such as Micrococcus spp, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp, Corynebacterium spp, and Staphylococcus aureus, especially Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this instance, healthcare acquired MRSA is noted as HA-MRSA as opposed to community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus – CA-MRSA, which are infections acquired outside a hospital or healthcare facility. Environmental bacteria and fungi that are not related to human activity also contribute to the bacteria and fungi population. These organisms may be gram-negative rods such as Pseudomonas spp; Acinetobacter spp; Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (CRE); Bacillus spp; or fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, Cladosporium spp., yeasts brought in on plants, flowers or the soles of shoes. Bacteria and fungi entrained in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system from outdoor intakes are another source. Inherent reservoirs inside critical areas may include bedding, cleaning materials, trash, water systems (water lines, hydrotherapy equipment and inhalation equipment) and engineering controls such as filters, cooling coils and ductwork.

Building envelope construction and indoor abatement projects are unique in the potential for impacting the indoor air quality of health-care facilities. According to CDC, approximately 9% of all Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s) are from construction related activities. Building construction could allow huge numbers of outdoor bacteria and fungi to enter the general areas of a hospital but may lead to the transporting of ‘biologicals’ into areas with specialized patients. Indoor abatement projects could also be result of a water event in which building materials may have been colonized with bacteria and fungi. Control of dust and debris is critical in preventing migration of biologicals to critical care areas. It is prudent to use a particle counter to monitor particles outside the containment and to assess the effectiveness of air scrubbing and removal of particles and fungal spores/ structures prior to taking it down.

Building envelope failure or routine building construction could account for elevated levels of opportunistic pathogens such as coliforms (E. coli, Enterobacter spp, Acinetobacter spp; Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (CRE); Serratia spp) or non-fermentative gram-negative rods (Pseudomonas spp) being introduced into the facility. In general-use areas of the hospital, these organisms would typically not pose significant risk to the occupants, but when introduced into surgical suites or intensive care units these same organisms could put the occupants at significant risk of serious infections. Similarly, potentially opportunistic fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium spp and yeasts are often found in outdoor samples and could infiltrate into high risk areas potentially resulting in patient infections or death.

Indoor abatement projects are frequently indicated after a water event, material failure or when housekeeping control practices are lacking. The abatement typically demands that a containment area be established so aerosolization does not occur. The organisms are similar to those mentioned above but, depending upon the type of event, could also include Escherichia coli if there is a sewage line break. To insure the integrity of the work area, samples outside the containment should be monitored accordingly. In addition to the obviously contaminated materials from water intrusion there are more subtle reservoirs. Materials such as carpet, vinyl wall covering, and furniture can become a secondary reservoir through normal deposition of bacteria and fungal spores, and levels often increase in areas with increased relative humidity. Carpets and upholstered furniture harbor bacteria from the environment, such as Bacillus spp and coliforms. Fungal genera often found in carpet dust analysis include Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, Rhizopus spp and Mucor spp. Vinyl wall coverings, often used in patient examination rooms, may become a reservoir for Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii or Aspergillus niger.

It is standard industry practice to run pre-occupancy viable and non-viable samples when bringing a new area with specialized controlled environment online or when the documentation of such areas are being established or maintained. These areas may be bone marrow transplant units, operating rooms, surgical ICUs, pharmacies or any areas that have specialized engineering controls or filtration. Airborne particulate surveys are often used in conjunction with sampling in these areas.

A specific controlled environment is addressed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), Chapter 797, “Pharmaceutical Compounding, Sterile Preparations,” specifies the monitoring of microbiological concentrations on surfaces and air for sterile pharmaceutical compounding. USP, chapter 1116, “Microbiological Evaluation of Cleanrooms and Other Controlled Environments,” provides additional guidance and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14644 requires acceptable airborne particulate concentrations and assessments for pharmaceutical cleanrooms.

USP 797 specifies a written plan and schedule for microbiological monitoring procedures in pharmaceutical cleanrooms. Monitoring locations are selected to test the areas most prone to contamination during compounding. The plan needs to specify sampling for the controlled environments of the pharmacy, including the interior of the biocabinets and barrier isolators, compounding rooms, and anterooms located outside the buffer area. Each sampling site (air, swab, or contact) needs to have predetermined alert and action levels as a part of the written plan.

In summary, health-care investigations require a comprehensive awareness of the population at risk, hospital/healthcare facility engineering, design and functions, clinical and environmental microbiology, housekeeping practices, abatement protocols, and detailed sampling strategies in order to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s).

Sampling

HCAI or HAI SamplingSampling in a health care setting should have a specific target organism and/or event driven focus. It is not recommended that samples of air, water or environmental surfaces be taken to generate random data. As previously mentioned, sampling is done when Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s) are due to a particular bacteria or fungi, during hospital construction, for newly commissioned spaces, and establishment of new infection control measures.

In order to achieve an accurate assessment of the area, the investigator must determine the information that will be required in advance, and then select the specific type of microbial analysis. In some situations the total colony forming units per area may be sufficient to characterize the environment while in other situations complete quantification and identification may be necessary.

If a total colony count provides the necessary information, the lab has specific test codes for Total Bacteria Count or Total Fungal Count per bulk, surface area, cubic meter of air or per ml. This test may be indicated in quality assurance samples such as water cultures, dialysate samples or evaluating an area after clean-up or disinfection process or changes in infection control protocols.

When a total colony count and complete characterization of the bacteria or fungi is needed, there are matrix specific test codes (bulk, surface area, cubic meter of air or ml) in addition to target specific organisms. The target organisms may be based on information from the infectious disease/epidemiology team. When collecting air samples for specific bacteria and fungi, it is important that the industrial hygienist understand the media requirements for each bacteria or fungi. Contact the laboratory in advance to select media. It is recommended that a high-volume air sampler be used because typically the airborne microbial concentrations are expected to be low in a health care facility. The total air volume will be chosen based on the desired level of detection for the specific environment. Surgical suites, bone marrow transplant units, oncology wards may require a detection limit as low as 1 cfu/m^3 in some situations. General patient rooms, nursing stations, administrative areas and general use areas would not need that level of sensitivity. Multiple-hit pathogens are of greater concern than a single isolation of a “random” pathogen.

Laboratories may provide unique profiles that dictate specimen requirements and media selection for environmental screening for methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA vancomycin-resistant (VRE), Enterococcus, in addition to general screening for Pseudomonas species, Acinetobacter spp, Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (CRE), and other environmental gram-negative bacilli. These profiles for fungi include incubation at room temperature, 37C and 45C. The room temperature incubation is used to establish rank order of fungi among the areas sampled. Incubation at 37C provides a selective environm/ent for the isolation of fungi that tend to be opportunistic pathogens, such as Aspergillus species, Fusarium species. In general, fungi that grow at room temperature are generally 10-fold more numerous than those that grow at 37C. Inhibiting growth of the nonpathogenic fungi by incubation at the higher temperature will facilitate the detection and identification of the most likely pathogens. Incubation at 45C selects for Aspergillus fumigatus, a known Healthcare Associated Infection, (HAI) pathogen.

This fungal air sampling profile requires three MEA plates sampled at the same environment for the same period and upon receipt in the laboratory will be placed in the three different temperatures. Bulk, surface samples or waters may be submitted for the same temperature studies and will be processed and incubated at the three temperatures.

Microbiological samples in cleanrooms for USP <797> should be incorporated into the cleanroom commissioning process to verify engineering controls and provide baseline data prior to compounding activities. Air sampling should be conducted monthly for low-medium risk compounding and weekly for high-risk compounding. Cleanroom microflora can originate from staff, supplies and product contamination, air backwash through entrances and room filter leakage. Air samples should be collected following any required cleanroom air purge time that has been established by the pharmacy unit. Active air sampling may be conducted using slit, sieve or centrifugal impact samplers. Sampling should be conducted using non-selective malt extract agar (MEA) and trypticase soy agar (TSA). Media and temperature should remain consistent to ensure appropriate comparison of data. The decision to change culture media should be phased-in gradually and include side-by-side plate sampling for data comparison.

Selection of target organisms, media, air volume and sampling equipment is critical in effectively evaluating the microbial concentration of a healthcare environment. Your laboratory will be able to discuss the details and implementation of sampling specifics.

Please refer to the current version of USP <797> for specific details.

Legionella is a bacterium that is naturally found in water, although it grows best in warm water. Some species have been known to cause diseases in humans, notably Legionnaires’ Disease and Pontiac Fever, though any disease caused by the bacterium is referred to as legionellosis. Transmission of Legionella is not passed from person to person; rather, it is contracted when the person inhales a droplet nuclei in mist or vapor containing the bacteria.

Reported cases of Legionnaires’ disease have steadily increased in the United States from 400 cases per year in the 1990’s to 4200 cases in 2011, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Scientists believe the actual number of cases is between 50,000 and 100,000, because many cases of unreported pneumonia are actually caused by the bacterium that causes Legionnaires disease. Most cases of illness are caused by Legionella pneumophila, Serogroup 1. Legionnaires’ disease is a type of pneumonia that affects the lungs and is often fatal. Individuals most likely to develop Legionnaires’ disease are those with compromised immune systems or lung problems, such as smokers, the elderly, the very young, and chemotherapy patients.

Legionella are gram-negative rods and require selective media to grow. These are mesophilic bacteria (35-37°C). To date, there is 50 known species of Legionella and about 70 serogroups have been recognized to cause disease in humans. The most common species of Legionella that causes legionnaire’s disease is Legionella pneumophila Serogroup1.

The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) finalized a standard for the prevention of legionellosis associated with building water systems, ASHRAE 188-2015, “Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems.” The standard covers which buildings should be subject to Legionella screening, where to screen, and lays out the responsibilities of building managers and facilities equipment personnel and the development of a water risk management program.

Please refer to our Legionella page for more information about Legionella.

References and Resources

  • USP <797>
  • Joint Commission
  • CDC document “Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities” June 6, 2003, Vol. 52, No RR-10.
  • American Society for Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, Volume 2, section 11.8, Air Cultures for Fungi.
  • Association for Professionals in Infections Control and Epidemiology, Inc (APIC), APIC State-of-the-Art Report: The role of infections control during construction in health care facilities. 2000.
  • Department of Veterans Affairs IL 10-2006-008. June 29, 2006.
  • CDC – Healthcare Acquired Infections
  • CDC – Legionella Information
  • OSHA
  • ASHRAE

Professional Associations

To learn more about healthcare environmental testing and our related services please request information using the form here or call us at (877) 648-9150. Thank you!

Supplies Needed

Pumps

  • SAS Super 100 Air Sampler and SAS Super 180 – Used to monitor for airborne bacteria and fungi.
    • Meets FDA requirements for acceptable environmental monitoring as outlined in the Guideline on Sterile Drug Products produced by Aseptic Processing
    • Tests up to 1,000 liters of air per 10 minute cycle
      • Air flow rate: 100 liters/180 liters per minute
    • Uses either general or specific types of agar
    • Produces quantifiable results in relation to the volume of sampled air, establishing data on microbial levels in specific environments
    • Utilizes simple and inexpensive contact plates for air/surface sampling
  • Applications include clean room monitoring, veterinary science, air efficiency, indoor air quality and HVAC.
  • SAS samplers are available for purchase. They’re also available for rent for your projects.

Wipes

3M™ Sponge-Stick with 10 mL Letheen Broth for taking viable surface samples for bacteria and fungi. 3M sampling sponges come in wet or dry formats with and without gloves to fit many applications.

  • Allows sampling without directly handling the sponge
  • Maintains organism viability with biocide free cellulose sponge
  • The stick also helps access hard-to-reach areas and to collect the sample without directly handling the sponge, making it ideal for reaching into drains, pipes, and around equipment.
  • Hospital bacterial and fungal profiles
  • Legionella – Sterile swab with at least 10-20ml of water

Agar Plates

  • Hospital bacterial profile – TSA, MSA, Blood agar MacConkey
  • Contact plates
  • Hospital fungal profile – MEA x 3
  • Hospital bacterial profile

Sterile Bottle

  • For heterotrophic plate counts – Require 100 ml. water in a sterile container with sodium thiosulfate
  • For potable water – Require 100 ml of water in a sterile container with sodium thiosulfate. Hold time 24 hrs of sample collection.
  • Sewage screen – Require 100 ml of water within 24 hrs of collection
  • Hospital bacterial profile – Require 100 ml within 24 hr of collection time. Water in a Sterile Container with sodium thiosulfate
  • Legionella – Sterile bottles for Legionella. Require 250 ml. Hold time 72 hr of sample collection. Water in a sterile container with sodium thiosulfate.

Bulk

  • Hospital bacterial panel – Bulk material in container
  • Hospital fungal profile – Bulk material in container
  • Legionella – Bulk material in container for Legionella

Please contact your lab to order supplies.

Healthcare Investigation Checklist

  1. Planning vs reacting: Is this a routine surveillance assessment or a reactionary assessment? Scope of work changes based on situation.
  2. Classify situation. Is it
    1. Construction related
    2. Water event
    3. Infection control issue
  3. Facility involvement:
    1. HVAC
    2. Materials
  4. Types of environments involved:
    1. Specialized (NICU, BMT, ORS)
    2. Patient rooms
    3. General facility areas
  5. Define the population at risk
    1. Oncology-related
    2. Pediatric
    3. Surgical patients
    4. Employees
  6. Identify possible target organisms:
    1. MRSA
    2. Aspergillus fumigatus
    3. Clostridium difficile
    4. VRE
    5. CRE
  7. Understand the importance of media selection
    1. Media for bacteria
    2. Media for fungi
    3. Selective medias for target microbials
  8. Choosing an appropriate detection limit:
    1. For general IAQ situations
    2. Specialized areas
    3. Assessing potential exposure situation
  9. Choosing appropriate sampling equipment:
    1. High volume impactors vs traditional samplers
    2. Particle counters

Glossary

•	Healthcare Environmental Testing

Joint Commission – The Joint Commission (TJC), formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and previous to that the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH),[1] is a United States-based nonprofit tax-exempt 501(c) organization[2] that accredits more than 19,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States.[3] A majority of state governments have come to recognize Joint Commission accreditation as a condition of licensure and the receipt of Medicaid reimbursement. Surveys (inspections) typically follow a triennial cycle, with findings made available to the public in an accreditation quality report on the Quality Check website.

The declared mission of the organization is ‘To continuously improve health care for the public, in collaboration with other stakeholders, by evaluating health care organizations and inspiring them to excel in providing safe and effective care of the highest quality and value.”[4]

HAI – Healthcare acquired infection

Pathogen – A pathogen or infectious agent (colloquially known as a germ) is a microorganism—in the widest sense, such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus—that causes disease in its host. The host may be an animal (including humans), a plant, or even another microorganism.[1][2]

  • MRSA – resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics called beta-lactams. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. In the community, most MRSA infections are skin infection.
  • Staphylococcus aureus – is a type of bacteria that about 30% of people carry in their noses. Most of the time, staph does not cause any harm; however, sometimes staph causes infections. In healthcare settings, these infections can be serious or fatal, including:
    • Bacteremia or sepsis when bacteria spread to the bloodstream.
    • Pneumonia, which predominantly affects people with underlying lung disease including those on mechanical ventilators.
    • Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), which can lead to heart failure or stroke.
    • Osteomyelitis (bone infection), which can be caused by staph bacteria traveling in the bloodstream or put there by direct contact such as following trauma (puncture wound of foot or intravenous (IV) drug abuse).
  • Clostridium difficile – Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, Gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that produces two exotoxins: toxin A and toxin B. It is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). It accounts for 15-25% of all episodes of AAD.
  • VRE – Enteroccocci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Vancomycin is an antibiotic that is used to treat some drug-resistant infections caused by enterococci. In some instances, enterococci have become resistant to this drug and thus are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Most VRE infections occur in hospitals.
  • CRE – CRE, which stands for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, are a family of germs that are difficult to treat because they have high levels of resistance to antibiotics. Klebsiella species and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are examples of Enterobacteriaceae, a normal part of the human gut bacteria, that can become carbapenem-resistant. Types of CRE are sometimes known as KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) and NDM (New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase). KPC and NDM are enzymes that break down carbapenems and make them ineffective.
  • Heterotrophic Plate Count – Heterotrophs are a group of microorganisms (bacteria, molds and yeasts) that use organic carbon sources to grow and can be found in all types of water. In fact, the majority of bacteria found in drinking water systems are considered heterotrophs. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is a method that measures colony formation on culture media of heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water. Thus the HPC test (also known as Standard Plate Count) can be used to measure the overall bacteriological quality of drinking water in public, semi-public and private water systems.
  • Legionella – The genus Legionella is a pathogenic group of Gram-negative bacteria that includes the species L. pneumophila, causing legionellosis[1] (all illnesses caused by Legionella) including a pneumonia-type illness called Legionnaires’ disease and a mild flu-like illness called Pontiac fever.[1]

    Legionella is common in many environments, including soil and aquatic systems, with at least 50 species and 70 serogroups identified.

    The side chains of the cell wall carry the bases responsible for the somatic antigen specificity of these organisms. The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components and arrangement of the different sugars determines the nature of the somatic or O antigen determinants, which are essential means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria.

TARGET BACTERIA ANALYSIS (please contact your Account Manager for pricing)

MRSA Sampling and Analysis

  • Bacteria Organism Speciation (One ID) Test Code 1064
  • Staphylococcus aureaus Test Code 1131
  • MRSA Test Code 1121
  • VRE Test Code 6010
  • CRE (Carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacea) Test Code 1134
  • Listeria species Test Code 1135
  • Klebsiella species Test Code 1136
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa Test Code 6009
  • Acinetobacter species Test Code 1138
  • Bacillus anthracis Test Code 2099
  • Salmonella Test Code 1140
  • Campylobacter species Test Code 1141
  • Mycobacterium species Test Code 1067
  • Streptococcus species Test Code 1091
  • Clostridium difficile Test Code 1125

Bacterial Analysis (Please Submit Ice Packs with Samples)

AIR
  • Bacterial Count w/ Complete Genus ID Test Code 1005
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1) Test Code 1016
  • E. coli / Total coliforms Test Code 1074
  • Thermophilic Actinomycete Count Test Code 1045
  • MRSA & Total Bacterial Count w/ID’s Test Code 1121
  • Clostridium difficile Culture (C-diff) Test Code 1125
  • Mycobacterium Culture & Count Test Code 1067
  • Air Culture Full Bacterial Speciation Test Code 1128
Surface / Wipe
  • Bacterial Count w/ Complete Genus ID Test Code 1006
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1) Test Code 1016
  • E. coli / Total coliforms Colisure (P/A) Test Code 1012
  • Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) Colilert/Enterolert (P/A) Test Code 1028
  • Quantitative Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) QuantiTray Test Code 2028
  • Thermophilic Actinomycete Count Test Code 1046
  • MRSA & Total Bacterial Count w/ID’s Test Code 1122
  • Clostridium difficile Culture (C-diff) Test Code 1126
  • Mycobacterium Culture & Count Test Code 1091
  • Surface/Wipe Culture Full Speciation Test Code 1118
Bulk / Dust
  • Bacterial Count w/ Complete Genus ID Test Code 1008
  • E. coli / Total coliforms Test Code 1013
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1 & 2-15) Test Code 1063
  • Thermophilic Actinomycete Count Test Code 1048
  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Culture Test Code 2003
  • MRSA & Total Bacterial Count w/ID’s Test Code 1123
  • Bulk/Dust Culture Full Speciation Test Code 1120
Water
  • Heterotrophic Plate Count Test Code 2056
  • Bacterial Count w/ Complete Genus ID Test Code 1007
  • E. coli / Total coliforms (Potable) Colisure (P/A) Test Code 1010
  • Quantitative E. coli / coliforms (Potable) QuantiTray Test Code 2010
  • E. coli / Total coliforms (Non-Potable) Colisure (P/A) Test Code 1011
  • Quantitative E. coli / coliforms (Non-Potable) QuantiTray Test Code 2011
  • Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) Colilert/Enterolert (P/A) Test Code 1029
  • Quantitative Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) QuantiTray Test Code 2012
  • Quantitative Enterococcus (Non-Potable) QuantiTray Test Code 2013
  • Mycobacterium Culture & Count Test Code 1096
  • Water Culture Full Bacteria Speciation Test Code 1130

Legionella Services (please contact your Account Manager for pricing)

Air
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1 & 2-15) Test Code 1016
Surface / Wipe
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1 & 2-15) Test Code 1017
  • Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) Test Code 1028
Bulk / Dust
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1 & 2-15) Test Code 1063
Water
  • Legionella Analysis, CDC Method (Includes Serogroup 1 & 2-15) Test Code 1015
  • Legionella pneumophila Serogrouping and non-pneuomphila Speciation (potable) Test Code 1515
  • Legionella pneumophila Serogrouping and non-pneuomphila Speciation (non-potable) Test Code 1516
  • Heterotrophic Plate Count Test Code 2056
  • E. coli / Total coliforms (Potable) Test Code 1010
  • Sewage Screen (E.coli/fecal coliforms, Enterococcus) Test Code 1028
  • Bacterial Count w/ Complete Genus ID Test Code 1007
  • Culture, Total Fungal Count w/Identifications Test Code 1032
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Test Code 2015

Fungi Services (please contact your Account Manager for pricing)

Aspergillus Niger Analysis

TARGET FUNGI ANALYSIS (please contact your Account Manager for pricing)
  • Fungal Organism Speciation (One ID) Test Code 2001
  • Aspergillus fumigatus Test Code 1143
  • Cryptococcus neoformans Test Code 1098
  • Penicillium species Test Code 1100
  • Aspergillus species Test Code 1101
  • Candida albicans Test Code 1145
  • Candida species Test Code 1146
  • Stachybotrys chartarum Test Code 1147
  • Fusarium species Test Code 1148
  • Acremonium species Test Code 1149

NON-CULTURABLE DIRECT MICRSCOPIC EXAM ANALYSIS

AIR (Aerotrap, Allergenco D, Air-O-Cell™, Micro5, etc.)
  • Spore Trap Analysis* Test Code 1054
  • Spore Trap Analysis* w/ non-biological particle characterization Test Code 2080
  • Non-biological Particle Characterization* Test Code 1026
  • *Background debris, pollen, insect parts and skin cells noted if identified

SWAB / TAPE LIFT
  • Qualitative Direct Microscopic Exam* Test Code 1051
  • Quantitative Direct Microscopic Exam* (Tape Only) Test Code 1049
  • *Background debris, pollen, insect parts and skin cells noted if identified

BULK / DUST (Dust, Building Material)
  • Qualitative Direct Microscopic Exam* Test Code 1050
  • Quantitative Direct Microscopic Exam* Test Code 6000
  • Wood Decay Analysis (Serpula species, phellinus species) Contact Lab
  • *Background debris, pollen, insect parts and skin cells noted if identified

WATER
  • Qualitative Direct Microscopic Exam Test Code 1052

CULTURABLE ANALYSIS

Fungal Analysis (Please Submit Ice Packs with Samples)

AIR
  • Fungal Count w/ Complete Genus Identification* Test Code 1030
  • Stachybotrys species & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* 1038
  • Cryptococcus spp. & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1098
  • Thermophilic Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1059
  • Air Culture Full Fungal Speciation Test Code 1127
  • *Speciation of Aspergillus included in full genus ID

SURFACE / WIPE
  • Fungal Count w/ Complete Genus ID* Test Code 1031
  • Stachybotrys & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1037
  • Cryptococcus & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1097
  • Thermophilic Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1057
  • Surface/Wipe Culture Full Fungal Speciation Test Code 1117
  • *Speciation of Aspergillus included in full genus ID

BULK / DUST
  • Fungal Count w/ Complete Genus ID* Test Code 1033
  • Stachybotrys & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1035
  • Cryptococcus & Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1099
  • Thermophilic Fungal Count w/ Full Genus ID* Test Code 1058
  • Bulk/Dust Culture Full Fungal Speciation Test Code 1119
  • *Speciation of Aspergillus included in full genus ID

WATER
  • Fungal Count w/ Complete Genus ID* Test Code1032
  • Water Culture Full Fungal Speciation Test Code 1129
  • *Speciation of Aspergillus included in full genus ID

Healthcare Environmental Testing

To learn more about healthcare environmental testing and our related services please request information using the form here or call us at (877) 648-9150. Thank you!